This research project had four different objectives. Among the four objectives the first one is to develop an understanding regarding the causes and consequences of non-enrollment and school drop-out through categorizing the out-of-school children (aged up to 16 years) in two groups and thus attempting to find answers of why the children were never enrolled in primary schools and why the children who initially get enrolled and later dropped out (during and after the primary level). Through comparing and contrasting the experiences of these two groups, the study will identify the reasons, consequences, and offer potential programmatic approach that may help these children to return to school and/or prevent drop out. The second objective is to explore the gender dimension of primary and secondary education. The study will identify and address the underlying issues and problems to positively influence girls’ continuing education at the later level. Through analyzing the nationally representative survey on education that was conducted in 2014 by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and by complementing the survey findings with qualitative research methods (where applicable), this study will identify different aspects of access to and outcome of education for boys and girls. The third objective of the study is to analyze the rural-urban divide in education sector. One last objective of the study is to ensure quality education at the primary and secondary levels through developing an understanding about what "quality" really is and how the quality of education (as defined by the stakeholders) can be improved. This study is using a mixed-method research methodology utilizing both quantitative and qualitative techniques.